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nucleophilic addition to carbonyl groups > mechanisms > home      

Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl groups


The general form of the nucleophilic addition to carbonyl group mechanism is as follows:

Nucleophilic Addition to Carbonyl Groups

First step is the attack of the nucleophile on the partially positive carbon to make the tetrahedral intermediate with the full negatively charged oxygen. The oxygen then becomes protonated to yield the alcohol.

Variety of nucleophiles:

  • Grignard Reagents
  • Alcohols
  • Amines
  • Alkyl Lithium Reagents
  • Acetylide Ions

Example of nucleophilic addition to carbonyl groups:

In this case, acetylide anion is acting as the nucleophile

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